Example Essay on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavior problem that is described as hyperactivity, inattention, restlessness, and impulsivity and, until recently, was diagnosed primarily in kids. It had been first thought as Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood in 1957 and was popularly known as hyperactivity or syndrome that is hyperactive it had been renamed ADHD in 1987. The renaming also represented a shift in focus from hyperactive behavior towards the inattention as a characteristic that is major of disorder.

The centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates 7 percent of school-age (6-10) children have ADHD, with a ratio of 3 to 1 boys to girls in the United States. White children are apt to have higher rates of ADHD diagnosis than minority children. The definition of ADHD has broadened in recent years. Now, as well as school-age children, ADHD is diagnosed in preschool children, adolescents, and adults, which plays a part in the prevalence that is rising.

The most frequent medical treatment for ADHD is with psychoactive medications, especially ethyl-phenidate (Ritalin) along with other stimulant medications (Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta). Treatment rates have increased enormously in recent years; in 2004 the Department of Health and Human Services estimated 5 million children ages 5 to 17 were treated for ADHD in 2000-02, up from 2.6 million in 1994. The treatment and diagnosis of ADHD is significantly higher in america compared to other countries, but evidence suggests that since the 1990s it has been rising far away as well, for instance, in the United Kingdom.

What causes ADHD are not well understood, although various theories have been offered, including dietary, genetic, psychological, and social ones. In the past 2 decades, medical researchers have reported genetic susceptibilities to ADHD and discovered variations in brain imaging results from those with ADHD and folks without ADHD. The causes of ADHD are still largely unknown although bio-medical theories of ADHD predominate. Some contend that just because there are biological differences between children with ADHD along with other children, what exactly is observed may be a reflection of differences in temperament instead of a disorder that is specific.

ADHD and its treatment have been controversial at the least since the 1970s does evolutionwriters work.

Critics have expressed nervous about the drugging of schoolchildren, contending that ADHD is just a label for childhood behavior that is deviant. Others grant that some children might have a neurological disorder, but maintain that there’s been an overdiagnosis of ADHD. Some educators and parents have raised concerns about adverse effects from long-term use of stimulant medications from time to time. Child psychiatrists see ADHD as the utmost common childhood psychiatric disorder and consider psychoactive medication treatment as well established and safe. Parent and consumer groups, such as for example CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), tend to offer the perspective that is medical of.

Considering that the 1990s there’s been a significant rise in the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. Whereas childhood ADHD is normally parent or school identified, adult ADHD appears to be largely self-identified. Some researchers have noted that numerous adults that are apparently successful an ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment as a result of learning about the disorder from professionals, the media, or others, and then seeing their particular life problems reflected within the description of ADHD (e.g., disorganized life, inability to sustain attention, moving from job to job). Adult ADHD remains controversial, however. Many psychiatrists have embraced adult ADHD as a major problem that is social with claims of tens of huge amounts of dollars in lost productivity and household income because of the disorder, whereas critics have suggested it really is “the medicalization of underperformance.”

Sociologists view ADHD as a classic case regarding the medicalization of deviant behavior, defining a previously nonmedical problem as a medical one together with treatment of ADHD as a type of medical control that is social.

Whereas some have pointed out that when a challenge becomes medicalized it really is less stigmatized, because its origin is observed as physiological or biomedical in place of as connected to behavior that is volitional others point out the social consequences of medicalizing children’s behavior problems. Some have suggested that medicalizing deviant behavior as ADHD individualizes complex social problems and allows for powerful types of medical social control (medications) to be utilized. Secondary gain, accruing social benefits from a diagnosis that is medical is also an issue with ADHD. You can find reports of adolescents seeking an ADHD diagnosis to achieve learning disability status in order to acquire certain benefits, such as untimed tests or alternative assignments. The definition of ADHD is a prime example of diagnostic expansion, the widening definition of an accepted diagnosis from a sociological view. For some, ADHD happens to be deemed a lifelong disorder, with an expanding age groups for diagnosis (from preschool to adult) and a lower life expectancy threshold for psychoactive medication treatment. It is more likely that an increasing number of individuals are being identified, labeled, and treated as having ADHD although it is possible that the behaviors characteristic of ADHD are increasing because of some kind of social cause.